A Student's Guide to
New Testament Textual Variants

The First Letter of Peter

1 Peter 1:8-5:13


1 Peter 1:8:

TEXT: "·Although plyou have not seen him, plyou love [him]"
EVIDENCE: p72 S B C 048vid 630 945 1739 lat vg syr(p,h) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: B

NOTES: "·Although plyou have not known him, plyou love [him]"
EVIDENCE: A K P Psi 33 81 104 614 1241 2495 Byz Lect cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn

COMMENTS: There is only a difference of two letters between the two readings. It is possible that one was accidently read for the other. The text reading is found in early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text.

1 Peter 1:9:

TEXT:plYou get [as] the end [result] of plyour faith"
EVIDENCE: p72vid S A C P Psi 048 Maj lat vg syr
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: -

NOTES:plYou get [as] the end [result] of faith"
EVIDENCE: B cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NASVn (footnote marker on wrong "you")

OTHER:plYou get [as] the end [result] of our faith"
EVIDENCE: 2495 one cop(north)

COMMENTS: The Greek word for "plyour" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text. In later Greek "plyour" and "our" were pronounced alike, so the reading "our" is due to a mistake of the ear. Although it is possible that "plyour" is a natural addition for copyists to make, the fact that it is found in so many manuscripts of different kinds of ancient text indicates that it is original. The NASV has the footnote marker on the "plyour" in front of "soul"; it actually belongs on the "plyour" in front of "faith." The "plyour" in front of "soul" is a supplied word, not found in the Greek text, as is shown by the italics in the KJV and ASV.

1 Peter 1:20:

TEXT: "was made apparent at the last of the times"
EVIDENCE: S2 A B C 33 81 614 945 1241 1739 2495 syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASVn
RANK: -

NOTES: "was made apparent at the last times"
EVIDENCE: p72 P Maj lat vg syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV NASV* NIV TEV

NOTES: "was made apparent at the last time"
EVIDENCE: S* Psi
TRANSLATIONS: NEB

COMMENTS: The more unusual expression of the text reading was changed to the more usual "the last times" by making "last" plural. A few copyists changed "times" to "time" to read "the last time."

1 Peter 1:22:

TEXT: "love one another earnestly from a clean heart"
EVIDENCE: p72 S* C K P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 945 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect two lat syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASVn NASVn NIVn TEVn
RANK: C

NOTES: "love one another earnestly from [the] heart"
EVIDENCE: A B most lat vg
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV

OTHER: "love one another earnestly from a true heart"
EVIDENCE: Sc

COMMENTS: The word for "clean" or "pure" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text because it is missing from early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western types of ancient text. However, since in Greek both "clean" and "heart" begin with the same two letters, it is possible that it was accidently omitted when copyists eyes jumped from the beginning of "clean" to the beginning of "heart." The reading "true" probably was taken from "truth" earlier in the verse.

1 Peter 2:21:

TEXT: "Christ also suffered for plyou"
EVIDENCE: p72 A B C(vid) K P 33 81 614 630 945 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: B

NOTES: "Christ also died for plyou"
EVIDENCE: S Psi 104 syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

COMMENTS: The reading "died" was probably borrowed by copyists from the variant reading in 1 Peter 3:18.

1 Peter 3:18:

TEXT: "Christ also suffered for sins"
EVIDENCE: B K P Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSVn NEBn TEVn
RANK: D

NOTES: "Christ also suffered for sins on our behalf"
EVIDENCE: 81 104
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

NOTES: "Christ also died for sins"
EVIDENCE: earlier vg
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NASV NIV NEBn TEV

NOTES: "Christ also died for sins on our behalf"
EVIDENCE: S C2(vid) 33 614 630 945 1739 1881 syr(h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: NEBn

NOTES: "Christ also died for sins on plyour behalf"
EVIDENCE: p72 A 1241 2495 ("on behalf of sins")
TRANSLATIONS: none

NOTES: "Christ also died for our sins"
EVIDENCE: C*(vid) lat later vg syr(p) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: NEB

OTHER: "Christ also died for plyou on behalf of sins"
EVIDENCE: Psi

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that "suffered" was borrowed from 1 Peter 2:21, it was natural for copyists to change "suffered" to "died" next to "for sins." The words "our," "on our behalf," and "on plyour behalf" (the last two of which were pronounced alike in later Greek) were natural expansions of the kind copyists often made.

1 Peter 3:18:

TEXT: "that he might bring plyou to God"
EVIDENCE: p72 B P Psi 1241 2495 Byz one lat syr(p,h)
TRANSLATIONS: NIV TEV
RANK: C

NOTES: "that he might bring us to God"
EVIDENCE: Sc A C K 33 81 104 614 630 945 1739 1881 Lect most lat vg cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NEB

OTHER: "that he might bring to God"
EVIDENCE: S*

COMMENTS: In later Greek the words for "plyou" and "us" were pronounced alike, so this variation is due to a mistake of the ear. Copyists were more likely to change "plyou" to "us" than vice versa, since "us" is more inclusive.

1 Peter 4:1:

TEXT: "Christ suffered in the flesh"
EVIDENCE: p72 B C Psi 1739 1881 lat vg cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: B

NOTES: "Christ suffered in the flesh for us"
EVIDENCE: Sc A K P 33 81 104 614 630 945 1241 Byz Lect syr(h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV RSVn

NOTES: "Christ suffered in the flesh for plyou"
EVIDENCE: S* ("died") 2495 syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn

COMMENTS: The phrases "for us" and "for us" (both of which were pronounced alike in later Greek) were natural expansions of the kind copyists were likely to make after "Christ suffered." They are absent from early manuscripts of both the Alexandrian and Western kinds of ancient text.

1 Peter 4:1:

TEXT: "the one who has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin"
EVIDENCE: p72 S* A C K P 81 104 614 630 945 1241 1739 {1881} 2495 Byz Lect {syr(h)} most cop {some cop(north)}
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV {NIV? NEB TEV? ("with sin")}
RANK: B

NOTES: "the one who has suffered in the flesh has ceased with sins"
EVIDENCE: Sc B Psi lat vg syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn {NIV? TEV?}

COMMENTS: The preposition "from" in only implied in the text reading. It is found explicitly in the evidence that is listed in braces. Perhaps the change from the singular genitive "from sin" to the plural dative "with sins" was influenced by the plural dative "by desires" in the next verse.

1 Peter 4:14:

TEXT: "the Spirit of glory and of God rests"
EVIDENCE: p72 B K Psi some Byz
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: B

NOTES: "the Spirit of glory and of power and of God rests"
EVIDENCE: S A P 33 81 104 945 1241 1739 1881 some Byz Lect four lat cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: RSVn

OTHER: "the Spirit of glory and of the power of God rests"
EVIDENCE: 614 630 2495 one lat syr(h) cop(south)

OTHER: "the Spirit of the glory of God rests"
EVIDENCE: three lat earlier vg syr(p)

COMMENTS: Although it is possible that "and of power" was accidently omitted when copyists' eyes jumped from "and" to "and," the fact that it is absent from early manuscripts of several different types of ancient text indicates that it is probably an addition by copyists.

1 Peter 5:2:

TEXT: "shepherd the flock of God that is among plyou, supervising not by compulsion but voluntarily"
EVIDENCE: p72 Sc A K P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 945 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSVn NIV TEV
RANK: C

NOTES: "shepherd the flock of God that is among plyou, not by compulsion but voluntarily"
EVIDENCE: S* B cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: ASVn RSV NASV NEB

COMMENTS: The word for "supervising" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS Greek text. It is the verb form of the word traditionally translated "bishops." In an later age that made a distinction between "elders" and "bishops," it was probably omitted by copyists who felt that elders should not be commanded to do the work of a bishop. Certainly it would not have been added by most copyists of that time.

1 Peter 5:2:

TEXT: "voluntarily, in accordance with [the will of] God, nor from fondness for dishonest gain"
EVIDENCE: p72 S A P Psi 33 81 104 614 630 945 1241 1739 1881 2495 lat vg syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSVn NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: C

NOTES: "voluntarily, nor from fondness for dishonest gain"
EVIDENCE: B K Byz Lect
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASVn RSV

COMMENTS: The expression "in accordance with God" was probably omitted by copyists who found it difficult to understand.

1 Peter 5:10:

TEXT: "called plyou to his eternal glory in Christ Jesus,"
EVIDENCE: p72 A K P Psi 33 81 104 1241 1739 1881 Byz Lect most lat vg syr(p) ("Jesus Christ") syr(h+) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV
RANK: C

NOTES: "called plyou to his eternal glory in Christ,"
EVIDENCE: S B 614 630 2495 syr(h)
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB TEV

OTHER: "called plyou to his eternal glory in Jesus,"
EVIDENCE: one lat

OTHER: "called plyou to his eternal glory,"
EVIDENCE: 945

COMMENTS: The name "Jesus" is enclosed in brackets in the UBS text. Although there was a tendency for copyists to add to the name of Jesus, a majority of the UBS Textual Committee felt that the great number of manuscripts supporting its inclusion indicates that it is original.

1 Peter 5:10:

TEXT: "restore, establish, strengthen, [and] ground [plyou]."
EVIDENCE: S K P 33vid 104 614 630 945 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect syr(h) cop
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASVn RSVn NASV NIV NEB TEV
RANK: C

NOTES: "restore, establish, [and] strengthen [plyou]."
EVIDENCE: A B Psi 0206vid most lat vg
TRANSLATIONS: ASV RSV NASVn

OTHER: "restore, establish, [and] ground [plyou]."
EVIDENCE: p72 81 two lat syr(p)

COMMENTS: The words in the list end with the same two to four letters. Therefore one or the other of them were accidently omitted when copyists' eyes jumped from the end of one word to the end of the next.

1 Peter 5:11:

TEXT: "·To him be the might forever. Amen."
EVIDENCE: p72 B most cop(north)
TRANSLATIONS: TEV
RANK: C

NOTES: "·To him be the might forever and ever. Amen."
EVIDENCE: S A K P Psi 0206vid 33 81 104 614 630 945 1241 1739 1881 2495 Byz Lect lat vg syr(p,h) one cop(north) cop(south)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB

COMMENTS: The words translated "forever" are literally "to the ages," while the words translated "forever and ever" are literally "to the ages of the ages." Since copyists had a tendency to expand doxologies, a majority of the UBS Textual Committee felt that the shorter reading was original in spite of the slender evidence for it, especially in light of 1 Peter 4:11.

1 Peter 5:13:

TEXT: "·She who is in Babylon, chosen together"
EVIDENCE: most other manuscripts
TRANSLATIONS: KJV ASV RSV NASV NIV NEB
RANK: -

NOTES: "·[The] church that is in Babylon, chosen together"
EVIDENCE: S some vg syr(p)
TRANSLATIONS: KJV* ("church" in italics) ASVn* NASVn TEV*

COMMENTS: The addition of the word "church" by a few copyists and translators makes explicit a common interpretation of this verse. The translations marked with a dagger are actually following the reading in the text.


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